— Explosion at Flamanville nuclear power plant in France, officials say no risk of contamination

From RT

February 9, 2017

https://www.rt.com/news/376796-blast-france-nuclear-plant/video/

FILE PHOTO General view of the operating nuclear power plant in Flamanville, north-western France © Charles Platiau / Reuters

An explosion has occurred at Flamanville Nuclear Power Plant, in France’s north-west, officials told local media, adding that several people were slightly injured after inhaling the fumes, though there is no nuclear risk.

The incident occurred at 9:45 local time (08:45 GMT) in an engine room, Électricité de France (EDF) said in a statement. The power at Reactor №1 was “disconnected automatically” after the blaze started in an engine room in the non-nuclear part of the facility.

At least five people have been slightly injured inhaling the fumes caused by the blast, AFP reports citing authorities.

There is no contamination risk to locals, authorities said.

According to AFP, the Unit 1 reactor will still temporarily be shut down, however.

It is a significant technical failure but it is not a nuclear accident” because the explosion occurred “outside the nuclear zone,” Olivier Marmion, director of the prefect’s office, told AFP.

A @EDFFlamanville 1, départ de feu maîtrisé en zone non nucléaire. Aucune victime et pas de conséquence pour la sûreté et l’environnement.

The nuclear plant located in the Flamanville commune has two pressurized water reactors that produce 1.3 GWe (gigawatt electrical) each. The reactors were built in 1986 and 1987. A third reactor will be completed by 2018.

The plant is owned by Électricité de France (EDF), a French electric utility company, headquartered in Paris.

https://www.rt.com/news/376796-blast-france-nuclear-plant/

Advertisements

— Les réacteurs nucléaires ont redémarré au détriment de la sûreté,« Un accident de type Fukushima est possible »

Reporterre

By Marie Astier
8 janvier 2017

En raison de la vague de froid, la demande d’électricité est à son maximum, justifiant selon EDF, le redémarrage sans tarder de réacteurs inspectés par l’Autorité de sûreté du nucléaire. L’association l’Observatoire du nucléaire s’inquiète de cette célérité, selon elle au détriment de la sûreté. Elle a saisi la justice pour invalider trois remises en marche.

- Actualisation – Le Conseil d’État, par une décision du 18 janvier 2017, rejette les requêtes de l’association Observatoire du nucléaire, qui contestait la légalité des autorisations de redémarrage des réacteurs nucléaires Dampierre 3, Gravelines 2 et Tricastin 3, délivrées par l’Autorité de sûreté nucléaire à EDF. L’Observatoire du nucléaire contestait le redémarrage de ces réacteurs dans lesquels ont été constatés des malfaçons (lire article ci-dessous). Dans sa décision, le juge des référés estime que EDF a pris les précautions nécessaires et en particulier « des mesures conservatoires d’exploitation visant à réduire le risque de rupture brutale en réalisant des modifications de l’exploitation réacteurs ».


Reporterre a actualisé sa carte du parc nucléaire, détaillant la situation centrale par centrale.

Pour faire face à la vague de froid, a-t-on redémarré certains réacteurs nucléaires trop vite, faisant fi de la sûreté ? Météo France annonce – 6,4°C en moyenne ce mercredi en France métropolitaine, et le pic de 19 h devrait nécessiter l’appel d’une puissance de 95.000 mégawatts.

La demande en électricité est à son maximum, alors que cinq réacteurs nucléaires sont toujours à l’arrêt, contre un seul l’an dernier à la même période. Déjà en novembre, Réseau de transport d’électricité (RTE), qui est chargé d’assurer la fourniture de l’énergie en France, avertissait que la pointe serait « plus délicate à assurer que lors des hivers précédents, en raison de l’indisponibilité de plusieurs sites de production ».

En effet, de multiples arrêts de réacteurs nucléaires ont dû être programmés au cours de l’année 2016, après la révélation en avril, puis en juillet, de dizaines d’anomalies dans la conception des pièces équipant les réacteurs nucléaires. Reporterre vous a relaté en détail toute l’affaire. Après contrôle, l’Autorité de sûreté nucléaire (ASN) autorise EDF à redémarrer les réacteurs les uns après les autres.

« Un accident de type Fukushima est possible »

« Mais il y a eu des pressions sur l’ASN. Voyant venir la vague de froid, EDF a fait tout son possible pour faire redémarrer ses réacteurs le plus vite possible », dénonce Stéphane Lhomme, directeur de l’association Observatoire du nucléaire. Pour lui, les conditions de sûreté ne sont pas réunies et « un accident de type Fukushima est possible ».

C’est pourquoi son association a demandé à la justice de suspendre trois des autorisations de redémarrage de l’ASN, pour les réacteurs Dampierre 3, Gravelines 2 et Tricastin 3. Pourquoi ces trois-là ? « Parce que ce sont les premiers qui ont été autorisés à redémarrer », explique Stéphane Lhomme. Les référés-suspension ont été examinés par le Conseil d’État vendredi 13 janvier, qui devrait donner sa décision au plus tard ce mercredi.

Les pièces sur lesquelles des malfaçons ont été découvertes sont les générateurs de vapeur, situés dans le bâtiment réacteur. Pour ces pièces, l’IRSN (l’Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire) explique qu’il y a « exclusion de rupture » : c’est-à-dire que les conséquences de leur défaillance seraient tellement grandes qu’elle n’est même pas prise en compte dans les scénarios de sûreté nucléaire.

« En particulier, l’acier des pièces proches du réacteur doit pouvoir résister à des chocs thermiques violents. À tout moment, on peut avoir besoin de déverser de l’eau froide sur les générateurs de vapeur », explique Stéphane Lhomme. Or, des concentrations de carbone anormales ont été repérées dans les cuves en acier des générateurs, les rendant potentiellement plus fragiles que prévu. La concentration maximale recommandée par l’ASN est de 0,22 %, alors que les contrôles ont montré que certaines zones dans les cuves présentaient une concentration allant jusqu’à 0,39 %. Pour l’Observatoire du nucléaire, les autorisations de l’ASN au redémarrage des réacteurs ne respectent donc pas son propre règlement, et violent le principe de précaution. Ce sont les raisons qui ont été invoquées devant le Conseil d’État.

Pour leur défense, l’ASN et EDF rappellent que les 0,22 % recommandés ne sont pas inscrits dans le droit, qui n’est donc pas enfreint. Surtout, selon eux le risque n’est pas si élevé que le craint l’Observatoire du nucléaire. « La rupture brutale [de l’acier] intervient en cas d’apparition simultanée de trois paramètres », indique l’ASN dans son mémoire, que Reporterre a consulté, au Conseil d’État : un matériau d’une « ténacité insuffisante », une fissure dans ce matériau et un choc thermique. La fragilité des cuves d’acier n’est donc pas dangereuse à elle seule, estime l’ASN.

« C’est du bricolage ! »

Et puis, le redémarrage des réacteurs est autorisé moyennant quelques précautions, appelées « mesures compensatoires ». Tout est fait désormais pour éviter les chocs thermiques, nous rassure l’autorité. Le fonctionnement des pompes susceptibles de déverser de l’eau brusquement sur le réacteur est par exemple modifié, les variations de température lors des démarrages et arrêts du réacteur sont limitées, etc.

« C’est du bricolage ! s’inquiète Stéphane Lhomme. Au départ, on sait que l’on peut avoir besoin de déverser de l’eau en urgence à tout moment, donc on a prévu un acier qui résiste aux chocs thermiques. Désormais, comme on n’est plus sûr qu’il résiste, on inverse et on fait tout pour les éviter. C’est faire comme si on constatait que les freins de la voiture sont usés, et qu’on décidait que désormais ce sera aux autres conducteurs de faire attention pour éviter d’avoir à freiner brutalement ! »

Autre inquiétude, comme l’ASN l’indique dans son mémoire, ces « mesures compensatoires » sont devenues « des mesures d’exploitation à part entière ». Autrement dit, « ils veulent continuer comme cela pendant des années, traduit Stéphane Lhomme. Or, la résistance de ces pièces va continuer de se dégrader, car elles sont continuellement soumises aux radiations et chocs thermiques. »

C’est pourquoi, selon Stéphane Lhomme, la décision de redémarrer les réacteurs aurait au moins valu « un débat national pour poser la question : les mesures de sûreté nucléaire sont-elles facultatives quand il fait froid ? »

Dans son mémoire, que Reporterre a consulté, au tribunal, EDF reconnaît avoir déjà donné sa réponse : l’arrêt des réacteurs présentant des malfaçons « en période de froid hivernal, où les besoins en production d’électricité sont accrus, poserait de graves problèmes pour la sécurité de l’approvisionnement énergétique ».

https://reporterre.net/Les-reacteurs-nucleaires-ont-redemarre-au-detriment-de-la-surete-11371

Posted under Fair Use Rules.

— France: Nuclear reactors restarted to the detriment of safety; “a Fukushima-type accident is possible”

From Reporterre

Translated using Google

Les réacteurs nucléaires ont redémarré au détriment de la sûreté
by Marie Astier (Reporterre),
January 18, 2017

Due to the cold spell, demand for electricity is at its maximum, justifying according to EDF, the re-start without delay of reactors inspected by the Nuclear Safety Authority. The association Nuclear Observatory is worried about this speed, according to it to the detriment of safety. It appealed to the courts to invalidate three restarts.
—————————————–
Update: The Council of State, by a decision of 18 January 2017, rejected the applications of the Nuclear Observatory Association, which challenged the legality of the authorizations for restarting the nuclear reactors Dampierre 3, Gravelines 2 and Tricastin 3, Nuclear Safety Authority at EDF. The Nuclear Observatory contested the re-launch of these reactors, which were found to be faulty (see article below). In its decision, the judge hearing the application for interim measures considers that EDF has taken the necessary precautions and in particular “precautionary measures of exploitation intended to reduce the risk of sudden rupture by making changes to the reactor operation”.
————————————–
Reporterre updated his map of the nuclear fleet, detailing the central situation by power station.
——————————————–

To cope with the cold spell, have we rebooted some nuclear reactors too quickly, ignoring safety? Météo France announces – 6.4 ° C on average this Wednesday in metropolitan France, and the peak of 7 pm should require the call of a power of 95,000 megawatts.

Demand for electricity is at its peak, while five nuclear reactors are still stationary, compared with just one last year at the same time. Already in November, Electricity Transmission System (TEN), which is responsible for supplying energy to France, warned that the peak would be “more delicate to insure than in previous winters, by reason of unavailability of several production sites “.

Indeed, multiple stops of nuclear reactors had to be programmed during the year 2016, after the revelation in April and then in July, dozens of anomalies in the design of the parts equipping the nuclear reactors. Reporter told you in detail the whole matter. After checking, the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) authorizes EDF to restart the reactors one after another.

“A Fukushima-type accident is possible”

“But there was pressure on the ASN. Seeing the cold spell come, EDF has done everything possible to restart its reactors as soon as possible, “says Stéphane Lhomme, director of the association Nuclear Observatory. For him, the safety conditions are not met and “a Fukushima-type accident is possible”.

That is why his association has asked the courts to suspend three of ASN’s restarting authorizations for the Dampierre 3, Gravelines 2 and Tricastin 3 reactors. Why these three? “Because they were the first ones who were allowed to restart,” explains Stéphane Lhomme. The suspension and suspension were examined by the Council of State on Friday 13 January, which should give its decision no later than Wednesday.

The parts on which defects were discovered are the steam generators located in the reactor building. For these documents, the IRSN (the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety) explains that there is “exclusion of rupture”: that is, the consequences of their failure would be so great that Is not even taken into account in nuclear safety scenarios.

“In particular, the steel of the parts near the reactor must be able to withstand violent thermal shocks. At any time, it may be necessary to pour cold water onto the steam generators, “explains Stéphane Lhomme. Abnormal carbon concentrations have been identified in the steel tanks of the generators, making them potentially more fragile than expected. The maximum recommended concentration by the ASN is 0.22%, while the controls have shown that some zones in the tanks have a concentration of up to 0.39%. For the Nuclear Observatory, ASN’s authorizations to restart reactors do not comply with its own regulations and violate the precautionary principle. These are the reasons that were invoked before the Council of State.
In their defense, ASN and EDF recall that the 0.22% recommended is not included in the law, which is therefore not infringed. Especially, according to them the risk is not so high that feared the Nuclear Observatory. “The sudden rupture [of the steel] occurs in the event of the simultaneous appearance of three parameters”, indicates the ASN in its brief, which Reporterre consulted, to the Council of State: a material of “insufficient toughness” , A crack in this material and a thermal shock. The fragility of steel tanks is therefore not dangerous on its own, says the ASN.

“It’s DIY!”

And then, restarting the reactors is allowed with some precautions, called “compensatory measures”. Everything is done now to avoid thermal shocks, the authority reassures us. The operation of the pumps capable of pouring water abruptly onto the reactor is, for example, modified, the temperature variations during starting and stopping of the reactor are limited, etc.

“It’s DIY!” Worries Stéphane Lhomme. Initially, it is known that emergency water can be needed at any time, so a steel is resistant to thermal shocks. Henceforth, as it is no longer certain that it resists, we reverse and we do everything to avoid them. It is as if one noticed that the brakes of the car are worn, and that it was decided that now it will be the other drivers to be careful to avoid having to brake brutally! “
Another concern, as ASN indicated in its brief, is that these “compensatory measures” have become “operational measures in their own right”. In other words, “they want to continue like that for years,” Stéphane Lhomme translated. However, the resistance of these parts will continue to degrade because they are continuously subjected to radiation and thermal shocks. “
That is why, according to Stéphane Lhomme, the decision to restart the reactors would at least have been “a national debate to ask the question: are nuclear safety measures optional when it is cold? “
In its memorandum, which Reporterre consulted, in court, EDF acknowledges having already given its answer: stopping reactors with poor workmanship “in cold winter, where electricity needs are increased, would pose serious problems for the security of energy supply ‘.
Source : Marie Astier for Reporterre

https://reporterre.net/Les-reacteurs-nucleaires-ont-redemarre-au-detriment-de-la-surete-11371

— France: Forced closures of nuclear plants cause soaring energy prices

From Zero Hedge

French ‘Shocked’ As Power Prices Spike To 8-Year Highs On Nuclear Reactor Probe Shutdown

— France’s nuclear power stations ‘at risk of catastrophic failure’ — Sizewell B and 27 other EDF nuclear plants

Global Research, October 01, 2016
The Ecologist 29 September 2016
tumblr_lvqjar7N5n1qiypiuo1_500

A new review of the safety of France’s nuclear power stations has found that at least 18 of EDF’s units are are ”operating at risk of major accident due to carbon anomalies.”

The review was carried out at the request of Greenpeace France following the discovery of serious metallurgical flaws by French regulators in a reactor vessel at Flamanville, where an EPR plant is under construction.

The problem is that parts of the vessel and its cap contain high levels of carbon, making the metal brittle and potentially subject to catastrophic failure. These key components were provided by French nuclear engineering firm Areva, and forged at its Le Creusot.

“The nature of the flaw in the steel, an excess of carbon, reduces steel toughness and renders the components vulnerable to fast fracture and catastrophic failure putting the NPP at risk of a major radioactive release to the environment”, says nuclear safety expert John Large, whose consultancy Large Associates (LA) carried out the Review.

His report examines how the defects in the Flamanville EPR reactor pressure vessel came about during the manufacturing process, and escaped detection for years after forging. It then goes on to investigate what other safety-critical nuclear components might be suffering from the same defects.

Steam generators at 28 EDF nuclear sites at risk

After several months of investigation LA found that critical components of a further 28 nuclear plants were forged by Le Creusot using the same process. These are found in the steam generators – large, pod-like boilers – that have been installed at operational EDF nuclear power stations across France.

The conclusion is based on documents provided by IRSN (the independent French Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire) that reject assurances given by both EDF and Areva that there is no safety risk from steam generators containing the excess carbon flaw.

In August 2016, IRSN warned the French nuclear safety regulator Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire (ASN) that:

  • EdF’s submission was incomplete;
  • there is a risk of abrupt rupture which could lead to a reactor core fuel melt; and
  • immediate “compensatory” measures need to be put in place to safeguard the operational NPPs involved.

“As a result of Areva’s failures, a significant share of the French nuclear reactor fleet is at increased risk of severe radiological accident, including fuel core meltdown”, said Large. ”However, there is no simple or quick fix to this problem.

“The testing and inspection regime currently underway by Areva and EDF is incapable of detecting the extent and severity of the carbon problem and, moreover, it cannot ensure against the risk of rapid component failure. It is most certain that the IRSN finding will equally applies to replacement steam generators exported by Areva to overseas nuclear power plants around the world.”

EDF reactors face protracted closure, credit rating falls

EDF stated yesterday that it will carry out further tests on 12 nuclear reactors during their planned outages in the coming months – and that extended periods of outage are to be expected. “There are outages that could take longer than planned”, an EDF spokesman told Reuters.

“In 2015, we discovered the phenomenon of carbon segregation in the Flammanville EPR reactor. We decided to verify other equipments in the French nuclear park to make sure that other components are not impacted by the phenomenon.”

In anticipation of the nuclear closures, year-ahead electricity prices rose in the French wholesale power market, forcing power rises across Europe up to a one-year high.

Meanwhile Moody’s has downgraded EDF credit ratings across a spectrum of credit instruments. EDF’s long-term issuer and senior unsecured ratings fell from A2 to A3 while perpetual junior subordinated debt ratings fell to Baa3 from Baa2. Moody’s also  downgraded the group’s short-term ratings to Prime-2 from Prime-1.

According to Moody’s,

“the rating downgrade reflects its view that the action plan announced by EDF in April 2016, which includes government support, will not be sufficient to fully offset the adverse impact of the incremental risks associated the Hinkley Point C (HPC) project on the group’s credit profile.

“Moody’s believes that the significant scale and complexity of the HPC project will affect the group’s business and financial risk profiles. This is because the HPC project will expose EDF and its partner China General Nuclear Power Corporation (CGN, A3 negative) to significant construction risk as the plant will use the same European Pressurised reactor (EPR) technology that has been linked with material cost overruns and delays at Flamanville in France and Olkiluoto 3 in Finland. In addition, none of the four plants using the EPR technology currently constructed globally is operational yet.”

Once rating agencies have had time to evaluate the seriousness of EDF’s current problems with reactors packed with unsafe crirical components, further downgrades may follow. “The ratings could be downgraded if (1) credit metrics fall below Moody’s guidance for the A3 rating; or (2) EDF were to be significantly exposed to AREVA NP’s liabilities”, the agency warns.

Flamanville EPR heading for the scrapheap

The Review also shows that the reactor pressure vessel of the Flamanville EPR, which is already installed, does not have a Certificate of Conformity issued by ASN. This means that it does not comply with the European Directive on Pressure Equipment, nor does it meet the mandatory requirement of the ASN, which since 2008, stipulates that any new nuclear reactor coolant circuit component has to have a Certificate of Conformity before its production commences.

“Without a Certificate of Conformity the reactor pressure vessel and steam generators currently installed in Flamanville 3 will almost certainly have to be scrapped”, said Roger Spautz, responsible for nuclear campaign at Greenpeace France.

The review, he added, ”reveals evidence that at the Creusot Forge plant, Areva did not have the technical qualifications required to meet exacting nuclear safety standards. The plant was not under effective control and therefore had not mastered the necessary procedures for maintaining the exacting standards for quality control in the manufacture of safety-critical nuclear components.”

Areva has now acknowledged that ineffective quality controls at le Creusot Forge were mainly responsible not only for the flaws in the Flamanvile 3 EPR, but across other operational nuclear power plans – and that the technical failures date back to 1965.

Moreover, ASN has indicated that in the nuclear components supply chain three examples of Counterfeit, Fraudulent and Substandard Items (CFSI) have occurred in the year ending 2015.

The recent ASN publication (24th September 2016) of a list of the NPPs affected by the AREVA anomalies and irregularities demonstrates that the phenomenon not only has reached alarming proportions but is continuing to grow under scrutiny.

The number of components affected by irregularities and installed in NPPs in operation increased by 50 in April 2016 from 33 to 83 by 24th September this year. Irregularities affecting the Flamanville EPR increased from two to 20 over the same period.

Also at risk: Sizewell B, Hinkley C finance, Taishan EPRs

LA’s Review also relates these developments in France to the UK, specifically: the currently operating Sizewell B NPP in Suffolk; and the now contracted construction programme for the Hinkley Point C NPP.

Sizewell B which includes a number of components sourced from Le Creusot which need urgent examination and / or replacement in order to prevent unsafe operation. The fact that this could escape the UK’s nuclear regulators also indicates, says Large, that “the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) did not delve deep enough into the situation as now revealed by ASN.”

As for For Hinkley Point C, it now appears inevitable that the Flamanville reactor will not be completeted by its target date of the end of 2020, indeed it may very well never be completed at all. Under the terms of agreement for the plant’s construction accepted by the European Commission, this would render the UK government unable to extend promised credit guarantees to HPC’s financial backers.

“Now that ASN has deprioritized efforts on the under-construction Flamanville 3 NPP because of its pressing urgency to evaluate the risk situation for the operating NPPs”, says Large, ”there is a greater likelihood that Flamanville 3 will not reach the deadline for operation and validation of its technology by the UK Credit Guarantee cut-off date of December 2020.”

Also at risk are the two EPRs that Areva and EDF are currently constructing at Taishan in China. These are now at the most advanced stage of any EPR projects in the world, however there are increasing fears that they contain faulty components.

The vessels and domes at Taishan were also supplied by Areva, and manufactured by the same process as that utilised by Le Creusot. It is suspected that Chinese nuclear regulators may have decided to overlook this problem and hope for the best. However if they discover that the steam generators, which along with the reactor vessels have already been installed, are also at risk of catastrophic failure, that might prove a risk too far – even for China.

The danger for EDF and Areva is that the massive commercial liabilities they may be accruing for faulty reactors supplied to third parties, together with the tens of billions of euros of capital write-downs for projects they have to abandon, and the loss of generation revenues due to plant outages, could easily exceed their entire market capitalisation.

In other words: for EDF, Areva, their shareholders and the entire French nuclear industry, the end really could be nigh.

Oliver Tickell is contributing editor at The Ecologist.

— Drigg: quaint coastal village and the UK’s “low level” nuclear dump

Up until the late 1980s radioactive wastes including plutonium wastes were tumble tipped into trenches. Now the site has gone all hi tech and compacts radioactive waste into rusting shipping containers…

From Radiation Free Lakeland
April 30. 2016

Drigg the quaint coastal village is also home to the UKs ‘Low Level Waste Repository’ (the word ‘Nuclear’ has been dropped from the official title) Although locals know this as the  Nuclear Dump.  Drigg is located near the Sellafield nuclear site on the shifting sands of the Cumbrian coast. Up until the late 1980s radioactive wastes including plutonium wastes were tumble tipped into trenches. Now the site has gone all hi tech and compacts radioactive waste into rusting shipping containers, any void in the container is filled with concrete.

The site sits above West Cumbria Aquifer from which is drawn the borehole water supply for much of West Cumbria while Sellafield gets most of its water from Wastwater.

The plan is to keep on dumping the high end of “low level” radioactive waste here despite the threat of inundation not just from the Irish Sea but also from the rivers and becks running through and alongside the site.

The planning application to extend the wastes, stacking ever more shipping containers higher, has already been approved by our toothless regulators, the Environment Agency.

Please write to the Development Control and Regulation Committee of Cumbria County Council who will be looking at this application on the 11th May ( if it isn’t postponed again) and ask them to refuse permission for the continued use of Drigg as a nuclear waste dump. Ask them to lobby government to hold a moratorium on “decommissioning” and dumping (breaking up and ‘disposing’ of old nuclear plants) which we now know means dispersal of radioactive wastes to Drigg rather than containment on original sites. Many more Driggs and radioactive landfills will be needed if new nuclear build goes ahead.

The site owners the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority pass day to day running of the site to multinational corporations involved in “decommissioning’ and those corporations largely monitor themselves. SO the same people responsible for producing the waste are also responsible for dumping it. The Environment Agency has told us it sees no conflict of interest in this…but we do!   Studsvik, a Swedish company who operate the only radioactive scrap metal plant in Europe here in Cumbria is one of the partners of the Drigg site.  On 20th April Studsvik’s waste operations were taken over by EDF.  Presumably this means that EDF  now have a large hand in running the Drigg site? Will EDF be tempted to ship tonnes of radioactive metals from their 9 nuclear plants being decommissioned now in France, to the Studsvik plant in Workington now that they own it?  And will the ever increasing tonnage of radioactive shot metal from that radioactive metal “recycling” end up in Drigg which they will also be operating?

more info here:http://www.theecologist.org/campaigning/2986745/cumbria_flooding_environment_agency_issues_alert_on_drigg_nuclear_waste_site.html

https://mariannewildart.wordpress.com/2016/04/30/drigg-quaint-coastal-village-and-the-uks-low-level-nuclear-dump/